2017年6月29日 星期四

hyperinflation

In Yugoslavia in 1993 prices rose 20% a day. In Zimbabwe in 2008, inflation reached 231,000,000%. Our cartoonist KAL looks at how hyperinflation can lead to the collapse of a country's economy



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperinflation

 經濟學上,惡性通貨膨脹是一種不能控制的通貨膨脹,在物價很快地上漲的情況下,就使貨幣失去價值。惡性通貨膨脹沒有一個普遍公認的標準界定。一般界定為每月通貨膨脹50%或更多,但很多時在寬鬆上使用的比率會更低。多數的經濟學家認為的定義為「一個沒有任何平衡趨勢的通貨膨脹循環」。當越來越多的通膨現象隨著週期反覆發生會產生惡性循環。有關惡性通膨的肇因雖有很多爭議,可是當貨幣供給有異常的增加或錢幣大幅的貶值,且常與戰爭(或戰後)、經濟蕭條、及政治或社會動盪聯繫在一起時,惡性通膨便日益明顯。

Definition[edit]

Sweeping up the banknotes from the street after the Hungarian pengő was replaced in 1946.
In 1956, Phillip Cagan wrote The Monetary Dynamics of Hyperinflation, the book often regarded as the first serious study of hyperinflation and its effects[4] (though The Economics of Inflation by C. Bresciani-Turroni on the German hyperinflation was published in Italian in 1931[5]). In his book, Cagan defined a hyperinflationary episode as starting in the month that the monthly inflation rate exceeds 50%, and as ending when the monthly inflation rate drops below 50% and stays that way for at least a year.[6] Economists usually follow Cagan’s description that hyperinflation occurs when the monthly inflation rate exceeds 50%.[4]


Animal testing, Toxicology testing





Toxicology testing became important in the 20th century. In the 19th century, laws regulating drugs were more relaxed. For example, in the U.S., the government could only ban a drug after a company had been prosecuted for selling products that harmed customers. However, in response to the Elixir Sulfanilamide disaster of 1937 in which the eponymous drug killed more than 100 users, the U.S. congress passed laws that required safety testing of drugs on animals before they could be marketed. Other countries enacted similar legislation.[36] In the 1960s, in reaction to the Thalidomide tragedy, further laws were passed requiring safety testing on pregnant animals before a drug can be sold.[37]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_testing

facelift



Trump Under Fire for Mika Brzezinski ‘Face-Lift’ Tweet

President Trump assailed the television host Mika Brzezinski, saying she had been “bleeding badly from a face-lift” during a stay at Mar-a-Lago. The tweet was met with immediate criticism on social media.


Yale University Library 分享了 1 條連結
Its year-long $73 million renovation includes new climate-control systems and an exterior facelift.
WSJ.COM|由 BRENDA CRONIN 上傳
The Wall Street Journal
The Panama Canal can now accommodate vessels that are longer, wider and heavier than before, thanks to a new expansion that was nine years in the making. The facelift was crucial to compete in a world where ships are getting bigger and bigger.


face-lift 1934
face-lifting 1922


2007.8

Two National Museums Get a Pricey Facelift

Patent Office building exterior. Credit: Jacob Ganz, NPR.
This summer, the National Portrait Gallery and the American Art Museum will be reopened, and museum officials are hoping the building itself will be as big an attraction as the art inside. Web Extra: First Look Inside


……我自己不對!留白不夠。
二OO五年編舞時頭腦想著張旭、懷素,一路往「狂」走。空間的留白照顧了。時間的留白琢磨得不夠。首演以來一直在大戲院演,舞台精力經過空間過濾,到了觀眾席有張力,無過分的壓力。像沙德勒之井的狀況沒發生過。
但是,好的編舞設計本身應該站得住腳,不能過度依賴舞者的詮釋,舞者累了,甚至用稍差一點的舞者來跳,在每個戲院仍然要發光。
「狂草」要拉皮!到巴塞隆納就動手!」
林懷民 {自己的一把尺(2007. 06. 21 倫敦‧英國)
【拉皮】:去除臉部皺紋的手術。在耳朵前﹑髮鬚後將皮割開,把臉部的皮膚拉緊,切除掉多餘的皮膚再行縫合,刀痕可以用頭髮來掩飾。施行拉皮手術,最多可使人看起來年輕十歲左右,但時間一久照樣會老化。(教育部國語辭典)
我突然想到,這「拉皮」應該是 1922年開始用的” face-lifting,經過十來年(1934)定形為” face-lift/facelift ”
可是一般字典不收這「拉皮」的俗稱。而這樣解釋:
vt. (及物動詞 transitive verb)1(建築物,汽車等)作外觀上的改善 2...整容
n. (名詞 noun):整容;翻新;改裝
日文:美容整形(自動車などの)モデルチェンジ改装.
facelift
noun
1 [C] a medical treatment which tightens loose skin to make the face look younger 拉臉皮

2 [S] treatment to improve something, for example a building, to make it look more attractive:
The bank is planning to give its 1930s building a complete facelift.

face-lift(ing)


美容整形; (自動車などの)モデルチェンジ; 改装.






facelift 

Pronunciation: /ˈfeɪslɪft/ 




NOUN

1cosmetic surgical operation to remove unwanted wrinkles by tightening the skin of the face.
1.1procedure carried out to improve the appearance of something:the station has undergone a multimillion pound facelift



facelift, technically known as a rhytidectomy (from Ancient Greek ῥυτίς (rhytis) "wrinkle" + ἐκτομή (ektome) "excision", surgical removal of wrinkles), is a type of cosmetic surgery or facial toning procedure used to give a more youthful facial appearance. There are multiple surgical techniques and exercise routines. Surgery usually involves the removal of excess facial skin, with or without the tightening of underlying tissues, and the redraping of the skin on the patient's face and neck. Exercise routines tone underlying facial muscles without surgery. Surgical facelifts are effectively combined with eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty) and other facial procedures and are typically performed under general anesthesia or deep twilight sleep.

2017年6月28日 星期三

sex-bomb, Bombshell (sex symbol)


The seductive 1950s sex-bomb whose daring backless dresses inspired ‘Jessica Rabbit’
Actress and model Vikki Dougan clowning around at the Ringling Brothers…
DANGEROUSMINDS.NET


Bombshell (sex symbol)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Marilyn Monroe and Jane Russell
Brigitte Bardot in 1962.
Sophia Loren, "the Italian Bombshell".
The term bombshell is a forerunner to the term "sex symbol" and originally used to describe popular female sex icons. In modern usage, bombshell refers to a very attractive woman.[1][2] The Online Etymology Dictionary by Douglas Harper attests the usage of the term in this meaning since 1942, and in the meaning of "shattering or devastating thing or event" since 1860.[3]

History[edit]

The first woman to be known as a bombshell was Jean Harlow, who was nicknamed the "blonde bombshell" for her 1931 film Platinum Blonde.[4][5][6][7] Two years later she starred in the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film Bombshell.[4] One of the blurbs on posters was "Lovely, luscious, exotic Jean Harlow as the Blonde Bombshell of filmdom."[8]
The epithet rose sharply in popularity after the death of Marilyn Monroe in 1962, and declined in popularity in late 1960s due to emerging ideological conflicts.[9]
Hollywood soon took up the blonde bombshell, and then, during the late 1940s through the early 1960s, brunette, exotic, and ethnic versions (e.g., Jane Russell, Dorothy Dandridge, and Sophia Loren) were also cultivated as complements to, or as satellites of, the blonde bombshell.[10]Some of the film stars, largely of 1940s–1960s, referred to as bombshells include Marilyn MonroeRita HayworthDiana DorsJayne MansfieldMamie Van DorenJane RussellAva GardnerCarroll BakerBrigitte BardotKim NovakSophia LorenElizabeth TaylorAnn-MargretVeronica LakeRaquel Welch, and Ursula Andress.[9][11]

Stereotype[edit]

Bombshells are identified with hypersexuality, their curves, including hourglass figures and large breastssex appeal, larger than life personas,[9] as well as stereotypes associated with blonde women and supermodels.[9][10][12]

2017年6月26日 星期一

gay, a pride of gays




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2016.5.9
"We're already so old, can they let us gather together to have fun?" Shimley said. "If we can find a guy, a gay guy to help us, be our caregiver, that would be great."

An elderly man who goes by the name Shmily has called for the…
HONGKONGFP.COM


因這次參觀同志大遊行,認識了幾個單字:
- Gay pride 同性戀自豪日:是同性戀權利運動的一部分,時間是每年6月的最後一個星期日。
- LGBT: 女同性戀(Lesbian)、男同性戀(Gay)、雙性戀(Bisexual)、跨性別(Transgender)。
- 「一群同志」的英文群體名詞也好像已有了共識,叫做a pride of gays。這個群體名詞過去用於獅子,一群獅子就叫a pride of lions。
例如:
- Decades ago, the Geography Department at Yale was abolished because it had become a pride of gays.
- To which gay pride do you belong?
- A PRIDE OF GAYS 

Nam sodales mi vitae dolor ullamcorper et vulputate enim accumsan. Morbi orci magna, tincidunt vitae molestie nec, molestie at mi. Nulla nulla lorem, suscipit in posuere in, interdum non magna.
BLOGS.REDIFF.COM



----
英文gay指同性戀,最先是1933年,不過這到1960年代,還只是圈內人的用法。到80年代才成為"標準語"。
所以1941年 Peter Gay舉家逃亡美國歸化時1946 (一說1941),將自己姓名Peter Joachim Fröhlich意譯成Peter Gay沒有特別意思。
說一下這是德國文化圈常用的英繹,2例:
(The Gay Science (1882 (German: Die fröhliche Wissenschaft/Literally "The Happy Science") ) By Friedrich Nietzsche 1844-1900);Hermann Broch 說1880年代的維也納:"圍繞在1880年代的歡愉的啟示錄 (the gay apocalypse)。" --Peter Gay的Freud: A Life for Our Time, 1988




gay 

Pronunciation: /ɡeɪ/ 



ADJECTIVE (gayergayest)

1(Of a person, especially a man) homosexual.
1.1Relating to or used by homosexuals:a gay bar

2dated Light-hearted and carefree:Nan had a gay disposition and a very pretty face
4informaloffensive Foolishstupid, or unimpressive:he thinks the obsession with celebrity is totally gay

NOUN

homosexual, especially a man.

Usage

Gay meaning ‘homosexual’ became established in the 1960s as the term preferred by homosexual men to describe themselves. It is now the standard accepted term throughout the English-speaking world. As a result, the centuries-old other senses of gay meaning either ‘carefree’ or ‘bright and showy’ have more or less dropped out of natural use. The word gay cannot be readily used today in these older senses without arousing a sense of double entendre, despite concerted attempts by some to keep them alive.Gay in its modern sense typically refers to men (lesbian being the standard term for homosexual women) but in some contexts it can be used of both men and women.