2016年12月30日 星期五

cyberwar, cyberwarfare

How Russia Recruited Elite Hackers for Its Cyberwar

The government scouted a range of civilian programmers, even criminals, in recent years while expanding its cyberwarfare abilities.

2016年12月27日 星期二

The black swan theory or theory of black swan events


這些事肯定都會在 2017 年發生。但真正的黑天鵝事件是什麼?——亦即現在不在我們的視野之內,卻會擾亂金融市場的事件?
(譯注:歐洲人以前所見的天鵝都是白色,所以認為天鵝都是白色。直到在澳洲看到黑天鵝,才對天鵝的認識改觀。「黑天鵝」指那些一旦發生,就會產生使人改觀的意外事件。)


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The black swan theory or theory of black swan events is a metaphor that describes an event that comes as a surprise, has a major effect, and is often inappropriately rationalized after the fact with the benefit of hindsight. The term is based on an ancient saying which presumed black swans did not exist, but the saying was rewritten after black swans were discovered in the wild.
The theory was developed by Nassim Nicholas Taleb to explain:
  1. The disproportionate role of high-profile, hard-to-predict, and rare events that are beyond the realm of normal expectations in history, science, finance, and technology.
  2. The non-computability of the probability of the consequential rare events using scientific methods (owing to the very nature of small probabilities).
  3. The psychological biases which blind people, both individually and collectively, to uncertainty and to a rare event's massive role in historical affairs.
Unlike the earlier and broader "black swan problem" in philosophy (i.e. the problem of induction), Taleb's "black swan theory" refers only to unexpected events of large magnitude and consequence and their dominant role in history. Such events, considered extreme outliers, collectively play vastly larger roles than regular occurrences.[1]:xxi More technically, in the scientific monograph 'Silent Risk',[2] Taleb mathematically defines the black swan problem as "stemming from the use of degenerate metaprobability".[2]

Background[edit]

The phrase "black swan" derives from a Latin expression; its oldest known occurrence is the poet Juvenal's characterization of something being "rara avis in terris nigroque simillima cygno" ("a rare bird in the lands and very much like a black swan").[3]:165 When the phrase was coined, the black swan was presumed not to exist. The importance of the metaphor lies in its analogy to the fragility of any system of thought. A set of conclusions is potentially undone once any of its fundamental postulates is disproved. In this case, the observation of a single black swan would be the undoing of the logic of any system of thought, as well as any reasoning that followed from that underlying logic.
Juvenal's phrase was a common expression in 16th century London as a statement of impossibility. The London expression derives from the Old World presumption that all swans must be white because all historical records of swans reported that they had white feathers.[4] In that context, a black swan was impossible or at least nonexistent.

2016年12月26日 星期一

Ayahuasca. tested negative for benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, THC, carisoprodol, methamphetamine/MDMA, oxycodone, and zolpidem.


“Ayahuasca takes you to the swampland of your soul.”

How ayahuasca, an ancient Amazonian hallucinogenic brew, became the latest trend in Brooklyn and Silicon Valley.
NEWYORKER.COM|由 ARIEL LEVY 上傳



When Joseph Schwab was pulled over in August 2015, he was booked for misdemeanor driving under the influence of a drug. But his blood alcohol level was 0.00%, and he tested negative for benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, THC, carisoprodol (a muscle relaxant), methamphetamine/MDMA, oxycodone, and zolpidem.
The only drug for which he tested positive? Caffeine.


當約瑟夫·施瓦佈於2015年8月被推倒時,他因在藥物的影響下被輕罪駕駛而被預訂。 但他的血液酒精濃度為0.00%,他對苯二氮卓類藥物,可卡因,阿片製劑,THC,卡立普多(肌肉鬆弛劑),甲基苯丙胺/ MDMA,羥考酮和唑吡坦均檢測為陰性。

他唯一的藥物,他測試了積極? 咖啡因。


 If a vehicle pulls over, it moves to the side of the road and stops

2016年12月23日 星期五

lidar, GPS


Galileo, a global navigation satellite system that will reach more places and work more precisely than today’s GPS services, is now available for free public use.

The latest boon for navigation services: a new fleet of satellites is now…
TECHNOLOGYREVIEW.COM|由 LUCAS LAURSEN 上傳



Ford is planning an autonomous ride sharing service in 2021. Having the best lidar will help.

The company that makes the best (and most expensive) lidar systems gets…
SPECTRUM.IEEE.ORG


Velodyne is the name of a trio of Silicon Valley-based technology companies focused on audio equipment, LiDAR, and marine solutions. Wikipedia
Founded1983



lidar 

Pronunciation: /ˈlʌɪdɑː/ 


NOUN

[MASS NOUN]
detection system which works on the principle of radar, but uses light from a laser.
Example sentences
  • Automotive manufacturers are looking at technologies that include radar and lidar to make such measurements, and could have the systems on the market within two or three years.
  • With the combination of GPS and inertial systems, and the use of a lidar (light detection and ranging) system, the plane's exact recording position and precise topographical data on the earth's surface can be ascertained.
  • The pulse energies in the solid-state laser can be higher since these lasers store energy longer and more efficiently than fiber lasers, and this higher power improves the performance of lidar and remote-sensing systems.

Origin

1960s: blend of light1 and radar.
More
  • radar from [M20]:
    This system for detecting objects by sending out radio waves which are reflected back was developed in the 1930s. The name comes from the opening letters of radio detection and ranging, and was coined in 1941. Police started using radar traps to detect speeding motorists in the early 1960s. In the Second World War the myth that pilots ate lots of carrots to help them see in the dark was spread to explain how they could detect enemy planes, as radar was still a secret. Other words have been coined on the pattern of radar, such as lidar (mid 20th century), which works like radar, but uses light from lasers (mid 20th century)—laser itself being an acronym from ‘light amplification by the stimulatedemission of radiation’.

光學雷達英語:lidarLIDARLiDAR),或簡稱光達,是一種光學遙感技術,它通過向目標照射一束,通常是一束脈衝雷射來測量目標的距離等參數。雷射雷達在測繪學考古學地理學地貌地震林業遙感以及大氣物理等領域都有應用[1] 此外,這項技術還用於機載雷射地圖測繪、雷射測高、雷射雷達等高線繪製等等具體應用中。
雷射雷達對物體距離的測量與通常所說的雷達類似,都是通過測量發送和接受到的脈衝信號的時間間隔來計算物體的距離。因此,由於原理上的相似性,儘管雷達的準確定義是使用微波或無線電波等波長較長的電磁波進行檢測測距的設備,雷射雷達這一術語仍然被廣泛使用。

2016年12月22日 星期四

Lycra, a MAMIL (Middle-Aged Man in Lycra),



The freedom of the open road has long appealed to men of a certain age. But instead of buying a sports car or motorbike, more and more are turning to long-distance cycling. The confessions of a MAMIL (Middle-Aged Man in Lycra), by The Economist’s 1843 magazine


An increasing number of men are having affairs...with their bicycles
The best of 2016
1843MAGAZINE.COM



sprawling, chale, clad, sandal-clad, sylvan, aluminum-clad, Lycra-clad
http://word-watcher.blogspot.com/2008/03/chale-clad.html


2016年12月18日 星期日

kowtow

 kowtow:少數百多年前的中文詞彙走入英文



民報


【楊憲宏專欄】
從2012年就成立「想想論壇」的蔡英文,四年後,上了美國《外交政策》期刊「全球百大思想家」名單。讓人有點納悶,沒有發表思想哲學著作的蔡英文,為什麼會被外國人認證為「思想家」?難道是因為「想想」?

答案恐怕不是。作者指出《外交政策》是基於人類正面臨一個「恐懼壓倒理性」的時代危機,他們選出來的思想家,代表人類與生俱來的渴望,「對抗悲觀主義不向絕望投降、挑戰醜陋人性拒絕接受失敗」。而蔡英文獲選,是因為她敢「戳那頭熊」,不像其他人那樣,向中共kowtow,這是她的膽識與勇氣。
(動考時間/英文小想想:什麼叫做kowtow?)


【民報】台灣成為正常國家是蔡英文總統的承諾與任務
在世局紛亂中,仍有一些清新的主張,令人感到振奮。其中之一是,美國《…
PEOPLENEWS.TW





kowtow
kaʊˈtaʊ/
verb
  1. 1.
    act in an excessively subservient manner.

    "she didn't have to kowtow to a boss"

    synonyms:grovel, behave obsequiously, be obsequious, be servile, be sycophantic, fawn on, bow and scrape, toadytruckle, abase oneself, humble oneself, prostrate oneself;More
  2. 2.
    historical
    kneel and touch the ground with the forehead in worship or submission as part of Chinese custom.
    synonyms:prostrate oneself, bow, bow down before, genuflect, do/make obeisance, fall on one's knees before, get down on one's knees before, kneel before; More
noun
historical
  1. 1.
    an act of kowtowing as part of Chinese custom.

climate refugee


 "climate refugee"是否為"新詞",待查。

mitochondrial DNA, Jack the Ripper


  • In 2002, crime novelist Patricia Cornwell, in Portrait of a Killer: Jack the Ripper—Case Closed, maintained that Sickert was Jack the Ripper.[38] A psychological motivation for Sickert was said to be a congenital anomaly of his penis.[39] Cornwell purchased 31 of Sickert's paintings, and some in the art world have said that she destroyed one of them in a search for Sickert's DNA, but Cornwell denies having done this.[38][39] Cornwell claimed she was able to scientifically prove that Mitochondrial DNA from one of more than 600 Ripper-letters sent to Scotland Yard and mitochondrial DNA from a letter written by Sickert belong to only one percent of the population.[40]
In 2004, the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, in its article on Sickert, dismissed any claim that he was Jack the Ripper as "fantasy".[41]



粒線體DNA英語:mitochondrial DNA縮寫mtDNA)指一些位於粒線體內的DNA,與一般位於細胞核內的DNA有不同的演化起源,可能是源自早期細菌。雖然現存生物體中絕大多數作用於粒線體的蛋白質,是由細胞核DNA所製造,但這些基因中有一些可能是源於細菌,並於演化過程中轉移到細胞核中。

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA)[2] is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondrial DNA is only a small portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell; most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in the plastids, like chloroplasts.

2016年12月17日 星期六

“pre-truth,” “post-truth”、Post-truth politics, Postfaktisch, Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2016

"We’ve been calling this 'post-truth politics' but I now worry that the phrase is far too gentle […] what Trump is doing is not 'engaging in post-truth politics'. He’s lying." – Jonathan Freedland.




Post-truth politics (also called post-factual politics) is a political culture in which debate is framed largely by appeals to emotion disconnected from the details of policy, and by the repeated assertion of talking points to which factual rebuttals are ignored. Post-truth differs from traditional…
EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG




2016.11.16 


Image for the news result
The Oxford English Dictionary named "post-truth" its 2016 word of the year over terms like ...
Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2016 is...
Oxford Dictionaries - 1 day ago --推薦
外,
牛津為每個字錄的影片:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3xcW7Tg5E34

'Post-Truth' Named Oxford Dictionary Word of the Year
Voice of America - 13 hours ago

~~~~詞條是2016.10.15 寫的。
What the video does reveal, though, is how this tech-savvy country, where 688 million people have internet access, is grappling with a digitally driven “post-truth” environment, just as other nations are.
But complicating the situation in China is an underlying “pre-truth,” the result of state censorship that manipulates and directs reporting.
這個故事凸顯了一個問題:和其他國家一樣,這個有6.88億接入了互聯網的技術嫻熟人口的國家,正處在一個數字化驅動的「後真相」環境中。但是,讓中國的情況更為複雜的是,這裡有「前真相」的基礎,就是國家的審查制度操縱和引導新聞報導
香港大學「中國傳媒研究計劃」編輯班志遠(David Bandurski)在接受採訪時說:「在中國,真相總是預先制定好的,而不是通過事實的報導揭示出來的。」


一家公司團隊活動時做的遊戲,傳播到網上的第二天就開始變了味。
活動的標題變成女員工排隊「親吻老闆」,2個月後,又變成「女員工每天排隊和老闆接吻」。
在中國浩瀚的互聯網上,這樣的「假新聞」並非個例。


一則「女員工排隊吻老闆」的視頻在網路熱傳,被查證為假新聞。此事凸顯出中國正處於數字化驅動的「後真相」環境中。相對的,則是由國家審查制度操縱和引導的「前真相」。
CN.NYTIMES.COM



(德國之聲中文網)在今年接近尾聲時,德國人尤其多使用了"後真相"(Postfaktisch)一詞。隨著美國總統大选和特朗普的勝出,以及虛假事實的傳播,"後真相"(Postfaktisch)一詞一再被使用。甚至德國總理默克爾也曾提及它。這個詞常被用於"客觀事實對公眾觀點的影響要小於人們被喚起的主觀感覺和感受"時。它對應的英文"post-truth"已被評為"2016年度國際詞彙"。

 三個候選熱門詞彙

一段時間以來,"英國脫歐"(Brexit)都被作為年度詞彙的候選大熱門。此外,熱門候選詞彙還有"令人恐懼的小丑"(Gruselclowns)。
Großbritannien Parteikongress der Konservativen in Birmingham (Getty Images/C. Court)

"年度詞彙"每年由德國語言協會(GfDS)的一個評審團選出。今年,評審團從各種媒體中選出1300個詞彙,再加上外界推薦的700個詞彙,組成了全部候選詞彙。在2015年評選時,"難民"(Flüchtlinge)一詞的排名非常靠前。
Horror-Clown (picture-alliance/dpa/P. Zinken)
 使用頻率並非決定因素

德國語言協會尋找的是在語言方面對一年的政治、經濟和社會起決定作用的單詞和習語。德國語言協會不會根據一個詞語使用的頻率選擇它,他們考慮更多的是該詞語的意義、普及性,以及語言質量。

簡如/洪沙(德新社、德國語言協會)