2016年11月30日 星期三

cashflow, cashback, cash for questions

cash for questions 英國政治1994:付錢給議員去提議.....


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維基百科,自由的百科全書
現金流量cashflow財務學會計學上,是指某一特定時間以內,特定的經濟單位在經濟活動中為了達到特定的目的而發生的資金流入和資金流出。在會計學裡,除了要量度現金流量以外,亦要為將來的現金流量作出合理的估量。現金流量的基本觀念就是企業某一段時間內可以立刻拿出來使用的現金。不過,經濟活動產生的現金流入和現金流出通常在時間上不匹配,而且經濟活動產生的現金流的數量和時間都具有不確定性[1],因此企業經營者必須致力於管理現金流的缺口,確實控制好現金流量,若現金流量不足將可能很快使企業跳票而倒閉

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What is 'Cash Back'

Cash back can refer to two different kinds of card transactions:
1988  1) An option available to retail consumers when, during a debit card transaction, the customer can request to add an extra amount to the purchase price and receive the added amount in cash. Cash back using debit provides customers a convenient method of obtaining cash when purchasing goods and services without having to make a separate trip to an ATM or bank.
2) A cardholder benefit offered by some credit card companies that pays the cardholder a small percentage of their net expenditures (purchases less refunds). Cash back benefits often provide the cardholder with the opportunity to choose from taking the cash, or using the "points" for purchases, travel (as with miles awards for air travel) or gift cards. Typically, cardholders must reach a certain points level to redeem for cash or other benefits. Some credit cards offer varying levels of cash back depending on the purchase. For example, a cardholder might earn 5% back on gas purchases, 2% on groceries and 1%on all other purchases.

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He was as much a risk-taker when it came to his money as he was when he was making decisions in Downing Street. Churchill spent wildly on everything from polo ponies to Havana cigars; between 1908 and 1914 the Churchill household spent an average of £1,160 on wine alone each year—£104,400 ($145,000) in today’s money




Churchill spent most of his life leaping from one cashflow crisis to another
He was born on November 30th 1874
ECONOMIST.COM


2016年11月29日 星期二

Libor—the London interbank offered rate

Libor—the London interbank offered rate



He had no idea it would star in one of history’s greatest financial scandals.


It was the product of a big survey and a little math.
BLOOMBERG.COM
For all its shortcomings, Libor is still a fixture of the global financial system. After the scandal, regulators talked about scrapping the benchmark and replacing it with one based on actual trades rather than what banks say their borrowing costs are. But that proved impossible, because the number was baked into so many contracts lasting many years. In 2014 the BBA was stripped of its role overseeing Libor and replaced by Intercontinental Exchange, a U.S. derivatives-trading platform. These days, Libor is based in part on actual transactions, but it still involves guesswork. Prompted by their success with Libor, authorities around the world undertook similar investigations into benchmarks for foreign exchange, precious metals, and commodities, unearthing widespread manipulation across markets and sparking billions of dollars more in fines.



Wikipedia 中文版只有這樣多的資料:
維基百科,自由的百科全書

倫敦銀行同業拆息英文London Interbank Offered Rate,簡稱LIBOR),或稱倫敦同業拆放利率,是一個英國銀行同業之間的短期資金借貸款的成本,原來由英國銀行家協會(British Banker's Association)按其選定的一批銀行,於倫敦貨幣市場報出的銀行同業拆借利率,計算出平均指標利率。此指針利率,每個銀行營業日都可能不同[1]
自2014年2月1日起,英國銀行家協會的角色由洲際交易所集團 (ICE)屬下的ICE Benchmark Administration Limited (IBA)[2]所取代。
在一家銀行內,有兩個利率,拆入利率(Bid Rate)是成本,拆出利率(Offered Rate)是收入

參考[編輯]

  1. ^ What is the London interbank offered rate? - The Guardian, Monday 17 August 2009 19.55 BST

timelapse

Google自2013年從地球(Google Earth)服務衍生出具有互動性的 Timelapse 縮時攝影服務,讓使用者親眼印證了人類積年累月在地球上所留下的結果。除了阿拉斯加的哥倫比亞冰河退縮、杜拜叢生的人工島以及南極的冰川運動外,還忠實記錄了全球各地城市化對環境的衝擊。

Stunning timelapse shows £450m cruise ship being built like LEGOover 5 years in Japan



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time-lapse_photography

time-lapse 

Pronunciation:


ADJECTIVE

Denoting the photographic technique of taking a sequence of frames at set intervals to record changes that take place slowly over time. When the frames are shown at normal speed the action seems much faster.
縮時攝影英語:Time-lapse photography),亦稱為間隔攝影曠時攝影延時攝影,是一種將畫面拍攝頻率設定在遠低於一般觀看連續畫面所需頻率的攝影技術。
當在正常速度下播放時,便會感覺到時間經過得較快速,而產生一種流逝感。舉例而言,對一個變動中的景象以每秒一張的速度進行連續拍攝,之後以每秒30張的速度播放,那麼便會呈現出加速30倍的視覺效果。
縮時攝影可被視為與高速攝影或慢動作攝影相對的攝影技術。針對人眼所能捕捉的微妙過程,例如太陽的移動、空中的繁星等等,透過縮時攝影能夠清楚、完整地呈現。縮時攝影可說是電影藝術技巧中減速攝影的極致版本,有時會與停格攝影動畫有所混淆。

歷史[編輯]

一些常以縮時攝影拍攝的題材包括:
  • 雲與天空的變化
  • 植物生長及花卉開花
  • 水果腐敗
  • 建築物的建造過程
  • 城市中的人們
縮時攝影常被用於拍攝人群、交通狀況等。以此技術拍攝變化緩慢、難以察覺的題材,會產生一種流暢的視覺感受。若用以拍攝變化快速的題材,則會呈現出猛烈變化的效果。
法國的喬治·梅里愛於1897年首先將縮時攝影用於拍攝影片《家樂福歌劇院》(Carrefour De L'Opera)。而自1909年起,尚·柯曼登(Jean Comandon)與百代電影公司合作將縮時攝影運用在生物現象的紀錄上。1920年代,縮時攝影進一步被阿諾德·弗朗克運用於一系列被稱做Bergfilms的影片中。

2016年11月28日 星期一

Ecology, Ecological engineering

生態工程在台灣的發展,讓我們學到什麼?
「生態工程」這個字眼,公元2000年才出現在台灣的媒體,自此生態工程有關的報導,正面或負面,一時成為流行。其實,早在1980年代,台灣已有類似的工程,最著名的是宜蘭縣五結鄉冬山河的親水公園。


Ecology - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecology
Ecology (from Greek: οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of" [A]) is the scientific analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes biology, geography, and Earth science.

Ecological engineering is an emerging study of integrating ecology andengineering, concerned with the design, monitoring, and construction of ecosystems. According to Mitsch (1996) "the design of sustainable ecosystems intends to integrate human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both".

2016年11月27日 星期日

peak experience 高峰經驗, flow, flow chart, optimal experience


高峰經驗 (文潔華)

人生裏的高峰經驗,遇上了便不枉此生;唯有關經驗,可遇不可求。
心理學家談人生的五層需要,最高層的便是高峰經驗;主要是宗教,但其實還包括美感經驗與愛情。宗教共享上帝與道,但美感經驗與愛情,對象千差萬別。別人嫌棄或狠狠批評的,也會有人鍾情一生。最怕聽見有人幽幽的說:「原來我一生未曾深愛過。」
美感經驗與愛情,放眼凝望,電光火石,靈魂就此投誠,轉過來連自己的存在也動搖了。不論外面的環境有多惡劣,道路險阻漫長,以後的人生不再一樣。
高峰經驗不受時間和空間限囿,那是一份關於震懾、崇高和壯美的記憶。遇上了,只恐怕不再遇上;但最好有所準備,勇往無懼,期待遇上。
其後,才知道生命的豐盛與蒼涼。
(作者是香港浸會大學人文及創作系教授。)

Interest in Johann Sebastian Bach has waxed and waned since his death on July 28th 1750. Sixty years ago, you “had to go to certain churches or special little concerts” if you wanted to hear his music. Better recording techniques since then has allowed Bach to pop up everywhere


Wikipedia 的"高峰經驗"項目,只有英文、荷蘭文、波蘭文、俄文,有點奇怪。
聽巴哈音樂ˇ的經驗,我提過Mary Bateson的書With a Daughter's Eye: A Memoir of Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson (1984),書中記一群知識菁英在奧國某古堡的星夜高塔聽音樂......
當然,我們每人在這輩子,都很可能有自己的高峰經驗......






flow chart 


(also flow diagram)


NOUN

1diagram of the sequence of movements or actions of people or things involved in acomplex system or activity.
1.1graphical representation of a computer program in relation to its sequence of functions (as distinct from the data it processes).
某些心理學家用FLOW
flow = peak experience

Scholarly articles for flow psychology of optimal experience

Optimal experiencePsychological studies of flow in … - Csikszentmihalyi - Cited by 2739
Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention - Csikszentmihalyi - Cited by 8239
Finding flow: The psychology of engagement with … - Csikszentmihalyi - Cited by 3408

每日一詞:Flow | 化境

在西方文化裡,flow指的是一種全身心投入某件工作的忘我狀態。找到你的flow,你就找到了幸福。東方智慧對這個概念並不陌生。莊子把它叫做「用志不分,乃凝於神」。
Flow 作為一個心理學概念,flow被這樣定義:a state of complete immersion in an activity (一種全身心投入某種活動的精神狀態)。提出這個概念的心理學家米哈里·契克森米哈在其著作《Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience》中說,那是一種完全沉浸在某件工作中的狀態,在這種狀態裡,人感到充滿活力,精神高度集中,忘記了自己和周圍一切,並且從這件工作中享受到愉悅。
「Find your flow,」 你會在美國聽到人們這麼說,作為給你的幸福生活建議。
Flow雖然是一個在當代西方文化中十分流行的概念,卻也與古代東方哲學遙相呼應。《莊子》裡面就有很多關於專心致志,臻於化境的故事。在《佝僂丈人承蜩》一則中,一個駝背老人拿著粘竿粘知了,在他專注的時候,即使「天地之大,萬物之多」,都被遺忘,宇宙間再無一物,只有他手裡的粘竿和樹梢的知了。故事的結尾把這種狀態叫做「用志不分,乃凝於神」,和契克森米哈的描述頗為暗合。
也有人把flow的境界與佛教的禪相比較
《紐約時報》文章《史丹佛最火的課程:像設計iPhone那樣設計人生》也討論了flow。史丹佛的兩位教授藉助flow來引導學生規划出美滿、有成就感的人生。他們這樣啟發學生:
「你什麼時候看起來最充滿活力?最投入?」伯內特這樣引導討論組。
「When did you seem the most animated, the most present?」 Mr. Burnett said, by way of guiding the discussion groups.
一個學生這樣分享她的體驗:
「我搞藝術史的時候體會不到物我兩忘,」伊爾庫斯說。「我討厭寫作。」其他人耐心地聽著。「我搞數學的時候才會進入那種狀態」她說。
「I don’t have flow when I’m doing art history,」 Ms. Ilcus said. 「I hate writing.」 The others listened patiently. 「My flow was doing math,」 she said. 
儘管東方智慧對flow並不陌生,但為flow找到一個對應的中文詞彙卻可能不那麼容易。中文網的編輯勉強借用了「禪」,配合概念解釋的辦法,把flow解釋為一種「身與意合,物我兩忘」的狀態。Flow應該怎麼翻譯,你有更好的想法嗎?不妨在下面留言告訴我們,也歡迎給我們的郵箱地址cn.letters@nytimes.com發信。


peak experience


Psychology
NOUN



A momentary awareness of joy or fulfilment, akin to ecstasy and of a higher and different quality from ordinary experience.







Origin

1950s.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
peak experience is a moment accompanied by a euphoric mental state often achieved by self-actualizing individuals.[1] The concept was originally developed by Abraham Maslow in 1964, who describes peak experiences as "rare, exciting, oceanic, deeply moving, exhilarating, elevating experiences that generate an advanced form of perceiving reality, and are even mystic and magical in their effect upon the experimenter."[2][3] There are several unique characteristics of a peak experience, but each element is perceived together in a holistic manner that creates the moment of reaching one’s full potential.[4] Peak experiences can range from simple activities to intense events;[5][6] however, it is not necessarily about what the activity is, but the ecstatic, care-free feeling that is being experienced during it.[7]

development hell or development limbo

顏擇雅
.......奧斯卡大片的劇本經常被磨十年以上,英文說 "in development hell", 受過奧斯卡肯定的編劇也要習慣自己作品被製片再三挑剔,拿回重寫。......


Development hell - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Development_hell
Development hell or development limbo is media industry jargon for a film or other project that remains in development (often moving between different crews, scripts, or studios) without progressing to production. A filmvideo gametelevision programscreenplaycomputer program,[1] concept, or idea stranded in development hell takes an especially long time to start production, or never does. Projects in development hell are not officially cancelled, but work on them slows or stops.

zero-sum


Image for the news result
Europeans Confront a New, Zero-Sum World
Wall Street Journal - 2 days ago
Weak growth has encouraged zero-sum thinking inside countries: When economies aren't ...



All the world over, a new nationalism is rising. Pessimistic and zero-sum, it is a dangerous threat to prosperity and progress. Our editorial:


Reagan's America was optimistic. Trump's is angry. There will be consequences
ECONOMIST.COM

零和賽/關係

Zero-sum game - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-sum_game

In game theory and economic theory, a zero-sum game is a mathematical representation of a situation in which each participant's gain or loss of utility is exactly balanced by the losses or gains of the utility of the other participants.
Definition · ‎Solution · ‎Non-zero-sum · ‎Extensions

Zero–sum | Definition of Zero–sum by Merriam-Webster

www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/zerosum

Definition of zerosum. : of, relating to, or being a situation (as a game or relationship) in which a gain for one side entails a corresponding loss for the other side <dividing up the budget is a zerosumgame>